Plaquex – 350

What is Plaquex? Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a molecule that makes up all biological membranes around cells, as micelles and surfactants. The cell wall is a delicate, moving barrier that allows for nutrient exchange as well as has embedded proteins for signaling with other cells. These cells are the building blocks of what forms everything from brain, liver, heart, muscle and every other tissue type in the body. PC is a phospholipid that is highly useful in this cell wall and helps the fluidity of this barrier. As we age, PC decreases and cholesterol and spingomyelin rations increase. These other types of phospholipids do not have ability to give as much fluidity to the cell membrane creating a more difficult nutrient exchange. Many enzyme functions depend on the presence of unsaturated Fatty Acids in the membrane, particularly enzymes involved in detoxification and lipid metabolism. PC is needed due to aging causing detrimental changes in the membrane phospholipid composition of cells. As we age, PC decreases as cholesterol increases with age. The phospholipid exchange (PLX) exchanges PC for spingomyelin and cholesterol (Kanno). The increase in PC in the cell wall can help with cardiac function, brain function, and liver function among other things. Plaquex has been used to aid in removing the plaque from arteries as seen in atherosclerosis.

Unfortunately, PC derived from foods leads to an increase of a proatherosclerotic metabolite, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). This TMAO is made from gut microbiota. The only way to bypass the gut is through IV therapy which then prevents this increase in the TMAO, which is associated with high levels of cardiovascular events.

Helps with:
-       Liver disease
-       Atherosclerosis
-       Heart disease
-       Psoriasis
-       Memory issues

For more on Plaquex,

1.     Arendt, B. M., et al. (2013). Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease is Associated with Lower Hepatic and Erythrocyte Ratios of Phosphatidylcholine to Phosphatidylethanolamine. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 38(3), 334-40. DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2012-0261
2.     Chung, S. Y., et al. (1995). Administration of Phosphatidylcholine Increases Brain Acetylcholine Concentration and Improves Memory in Mice with Dementia. J Nutr, 125(6), 1484-9. DOI: 10.1093/jn/125.6.1484
3.     Cui, Z., & Houweling, M. (2002). Phosphatidylcholine and Cell Death. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1585(2-3), 87-96. DOI: 10.1016/s1388-1981(02)00328-1
4.     Kanno, K., Wu, M. K., Scapa, E. F., Roderick, S. L., & Cohen, D. E. (2007). Structure and Function of Phosphatidylcholine Transfer Protein (PC-TP)/StarD2. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1771(6), 654–662. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2007.04.003
5.     Ridgway, N. D. (2013). The Role of Phosphatidylcholine and Choline Metabolites to Cell Proliferation and Survival. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol, 48(1), 20-38. DOI: 10.3109/10409238.2012.735643
6.     Tang, W. H. W., et al. (2013). Intestinal Microbial Metabolism of Phosphatidylcholine and Cardiovascular Risk. N Engl J Med, 368(17), 1575–1584. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1109400
7.     Treede, I., et al. (2007). Anti-inflammatory Effects of Phosphatidylcholine. J Biol Chem, 282(37), 27155–27164. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M704408200
8.     van der Veen, J. N., et al. (2017). The Critical Role of Phosphatidylcholine and Phosphatidylethanolamine Metabolism in Health and Disease. Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr, 1859(9 Pt B), 1558-1572. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbamem.2017.04.006