Thymosin Alpha 1

Thymosin alpha 1 (TA1) is an immune modulating peptide, or small protein molecule. It is naturally occurring in the thymus gland. The thymus gland is where the T cell (part of the immune response) matures. The T cell is released when TA1 levels are increased. As we age, the levels of TA1 decrease. Some of the symptoms of deficiency are: fatigue, lack of motivation, physical exhaustion, chronic infections, slow wound healing, joint pain/injury. Helping the immune system could be considered helping longevity. This peptide really helps with overall immune functioining and could be useful for everyone.

Thymosin Alpha 1 helps the immune system.
-       Enhances the way the T Cells function. The T Cells are part of the immune system and are given the responsibility of killing targeted pathogens that enter the body.
-       Rids the body of senescent cells that may lead to cancer growth.
-       Clears up active and chronic infections.
-       Anti-fungal, anti-bacterial and anti-viral properties.
-       Helps to fight seasonal allergies.
-       Protects against oxidative damage
-       Promotes Th2-Th1 shift decreasing inflammation and increasing ability to fight intracellular infections
-       Stimulate production of anti-inflammatory cytokines
-       Increases NK cell maturation and activity

Helps with:
-       Autoimmune thyroiditis
-       Eczema
-       Asthma
-       Rheumatoid arthritis
-       Inflammatory bowel disease (UC/CD)
-       May induce contrasting effects in different tissues and different immunologic situations
-       Lyme/CFS/FM: Reverses immune suppressive/evasive effects of Lyme
-       COPD
-       Antifungal
-       Increases antioxidants, including glutathione production
-       Inhibits viral replication
-       Increases expression of viral antigens on the surface of infected cells (HIV, HBV, HSV)
-       Blocks steroid-induced apoptosis of thymocytes

Studies on TA1 have shown it to be significantly lower in chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease (Pica). TA1 has been found to stimulate the immune system. This peptide shows utility in treatment for immune suppression, whether related to aging or to diseases such as infection or cancer (King). The ability to modulate the immune system and up regulate or down regulate different aspects has also been seen. It is currently being studied for treatment in melanoma and breast cancer (Wang). Recently, it has been found to be useful in treatment of severe COVID-19 cases with a reduction of mortality (Liu).

1.     Dopp, A. (1980) Thymosin-dependent T-lymphocyte response in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology, 79(2):276-82.
2.     King , R. & Tuthill, C. (2016). Immune Modulation With Thymosin Alpha 1 Treatment. Vitam Horm, 102, 151-78. DOI: 10.1016/bs.vh.2016.04.003.
3.     Liu, Y., et al (2020). Thymosin Alpha 1 (Tα1) Reduces the Mortality of Severe COVID-19 by Restoration of Lymph. Clinical Infectious Diseases. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa630
4.     Peng, Y. (2008). Effects of thymic polypeptides on the thymopoiesis of mouse embryonic stem cells. Cell Biol Intl. 32(10):1265-71.
5.     Pica, F., M. et al. (2016). Serum Thymosin α 1 Levels in Patients with Chronic Inflammatory Autoimmune Diseases. Clin Exp Immunol, 186(1), 39–45. DOI: 10.1111/cei.12833
6.     Tomazic, V. (1985). Thymosin alpha 1-induced modulation of cellular responses and functional T-cell subsets in mice with experimental autoimmune thyroiditis. Cell Immunol, 93, 340-349.
7.     Wang, F., Yu, T., Zheng, H., & Lao, X. (2018). Thymosin Alpha1-Fc Modulates the Immune System and Down-regulates the Progression of Melanoma and Breast Cancer with a Prolonged Half-life. Sci Rep, 8, 12351. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-30956-y
8.     Zheng, B. (2008). The prophylactic effect of thymosin alpha 1 on the acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Sichuan University, medical science edition, 39(4):588-90.